Study on response to breast cancer radiotherapy
August 24, 2015
Also strongly related to tobacco and alcohol (and their interaction), oesophageal cancer mortality has decreased moderately in men, but remained stable in women overall, while rising in middle-aged women. Deaths fell substantially in France, Italy and Spain for the same reasons as for oral cancers, while they have increased in most of northern, central and eastern Europe, with particularly high rises in Denmark, Scotland and the Baltic countries. In 2000-2004, the highest mortality rates in men were in Scotland (10.9/100,000), England and Wales (8.5/100,000) and Hungary (8.2/100,000); in women the highest rates were in Scotland (4/100,000), England and Wales (3/100,000) and Ireland (2.8/100,000). The lowest male rates (less than 3/100,000) were in Greece, Bulgaria, Italy and Finland; the lowest female rates were in Belarus, Greece, and Ukraine (less than 0.4/100,000).
Trachea, bronchus and lung
Deaths from lung cancer in EU men have declined overall. They fell by 17% in men from 1995 to 2004; however, over the same period they rose by 27% in women. Between 2000-2004, the highest male lung cancer mortality rates were in Hungary (78.9/100/000), followed by Poland, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Russia and the Baltic countries. For women in the same period, the highest rates were in Scotland (28.8/100,000) and Hungary (22.1/100,000).
Skin, including melanoma
Mortality rates are still rising in the EU for both men and women with overall rates in 2000-2004 of 2.4/100,000 in men and 1.5/100,000 in women. However, the authors say the rates in middle age have been stable in the past decade, and are levelling off in the younger generations. "A possible explanation could be that the health messages about the dangers of sun exposure are beginning to reach the younger generations," said Dr Bosetti.
From 1990-1994 and 2000-2004 breast cancer mortality has declined by 13% at all ages, by 17% between the ages of 35-64, by 25% between the ages of 35-44, but only by 6% for women aged 65 and over.
"In the UK and most other western European countries, mortality rates have been substantially declining over the last two decades, whereas they have been stable or upwards in Russia and most eastern European countries," the authors report. The key factor behind the favourable trends in breast cancer is improved treatment, together with diagnostic advancements.
Deaths from cancers of the cervix have fallen by 19% overall between 1990-1994 and 2000-2004, but rates remain high in Russian and eastern European countries. In western and northern Europe the decline is due to the wider adoption of cervical cancer screening programmes, while the authors say the higher rates in eastern Europe call for an "urgent adoption of organised cervical screening programmes".
In the EU as a whole there were modest declines in prostate cancer deaths of about four percent from 1990-1994 and 2000-2004. There were falls in France, Germany and the UK in the last decade, which could be attributed to better therapy and management of prostate cancer deaths in recent years. Mortality rates, however, were still increasing in Russia, the Baltic countries, Poland and other eastern European countries.
Source: European Society for Medical Oncology